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common verbs

Arabic
English
أتى يأتي
to come
أخَذ يأخُذ
to take
أكَل يأكُل
to eat
أمَر يأمُر
to command
بحَث يبحَث
to (re)search
بدَأ يبدَأ
to begin
بدَل يبدُل
to replace
برَز يبرُز
to emerge
بسَط يبسُط
to spread (something)
بعَث يبعَث
to dispatch
بقِي يبقى
to remain
بكى يبكي
to cry
بلَغ يبلُغ
to reach
بنى يبتي
to build
بان يبين
to become clear
تبِع يتبَع
to follow
ترَك يترُك
to leave/abandon
تمّ يتِمّ
to complete
تاب يتوب
to repent
ثبَت يثبُت
to be firmly established

Exercise: translate the following into Arabic
· she began to eat solid foods when she reached the age of one
· he sent many men to build it before it was finally complete
· stay with me, otherwise I will just keep following you
· I was ordered to take these
· don’t cry over me
· it is abandoned

Arabic
English
جرَح يجرَح
to wound
جرى يجري
to flow (literally or abstractly)
جعَل يجعَل
to make (something into something)
جلَس يجلِس
to sit
جاز يجوز
to be permissible
جاء يجيء
to come
حسَب يحسُب
to calculate
حصَل يحصُل
to acquire (transitive and intransitive)
حضَر يحضُر
to be present
حفِظ يحفَظ
to protect; to memorize
حكَم يحكُم
to pass judgement
حمَل يحمِل
to carry
حيّ يحيى
to be alive
ختَم يختِم
to seal; to conclude/finish
خدَم يخدِم
to serve
خرَج يخرُج
to exit
خرَق يخرِق
to tear
خزَن يخزُن
to store
خصّ يخُصّ
to single out/distinguish
خطِأ يخطَأ
to be in error/make a mistake

Exercise: translate the following into Arabic
· am I allowed to sit here?
· my clothes are ripped
· I’ve been carrying this since I got here
· she hurt herself near the exit

Arabic
English
خفِي يخفى
to be concealed
خلَص يخلُص
to be pure
خلَق يخلُق
to create
خلا يخلو
to be empty
خان يخون
to betray
خال يخال
to imagine
دخَل يدخُل
to enter
درَس يدرُس
to study
دعا يدعو
to call; to invite
دفَع يدفَع
to push away
دلّ يدُلّ
to demonstrate/indicate
دنا يدنو
to be near
دنِي يدنى
to be low
دار يدور
to revolve
دان يدين
to borrow
دكَر يدكُر
to remember; to mention
ذهَب يذهَب
to go
رأى يرى
to see; to have an opinion
ربَط يربُِط
to fasten; many other meanings
رجَع يرجِع
to return

Exercise: which of the above words would be the best synonym (not necessarily exact) for the following?

· to double cross
· to connect links in a chain
· to daydream
· to owe
· to reach downwards
· to repel
· to be hollow
· to show

Arabic
English
رجا يرجو
to hope; to plead; to expect
رحَل يرحَل
to set out for travel
ردَع يردَع
to keep something at bay
رزَق يرزُق
to provide (sustenance)
رشَد يرشُد
to be on the right track
رعى يرعى
to take care of / watch over
رفَع يرفَع
to lift/raise
رقِي يرقى
to ascend
ركِب يركَب
to ride; to mount/board
راق يروق
to be clear; to surpass in excellence
زال يزول
to die down
زال يزال
to stop
سأَل يسأَل
to ask
سبّ يسُبّ
to insult; to swear
سبَق يسبُِق
to precede
سفِه يسفَه
to be stupid
سقَط يسقُط
to fall
سكَن يسكُن
to dwell; to be still
سلَف يسلُف
to be over/done
سلِم يسلَم
to be safe; to be sound/correct

Exercise: find words from the above list that can be used in place of the following (but are not necessarily synonyms).

· to interrogate
· to elevate
· please
· to be complete
· to climb
· to be enlightened
· to push away

Arabic
English
سمِع يسمَع
to hear
ساء يسوء
to be/become bad/evil
سوِي يسوى
to be equal; to be smooth and the like
سار يسير
to travel (by night)
سال يسيل
to flow
شجُع يسجُع
to be brave/encouraged
شدّ يشِدّ
to be firm/solid/intense/violent/etc
شرِب يشرَب
to drink
شرَط يشرُِط
to stipulate; many other meanings
شرِك يشرَك
to share
شعَر يشعُر
to feel (an emotion)
شغَل يشغَل
to preoccupy (someone)
شهِد يشهَد
to witness; to testify
صبَر يصبِر
to be patient; other meanings
صحا يصحو
to regain consciousness; to wake up
صلَح يصلُح
to be proper/righteous
صنَع يصنَع
to make; other meanings
ضجّ يضِجّ
to be noisy
ضرَب يضرِب
to hit; other meanings
ضعُف يضعُف
to be weak

Exercise: find words from above with a meaning opposite (or contrary to) the following.

· to ignore
· to demolish
· to be greedy / to be the only one doing something
· to be strong
· to be quiet
· to be thirsty
· to go to sleep
· to be coarse

Arabic
English
ضمِن يضمَن
to guarantee/be liable
ضاع يضيع
to lose one’s way
ضاق يضيق
to be tight/narrow/etc
طرَح يطرَح
to toss; to cull
طرَق يطرُق
to knock
طعِم يطعَم
to taste
طلَب يطلُب
to look for
طلَع يطلُع
to rise (e.g. the sun); to ascend
طهَر يطهَُر
to be clean/pure
طاق يطوق
to able (to do something)
طاب يطيب
to be good/pleasant/agreeable/etc
طار يطير
to fly
ظنّ يظُنّ
to know; to assume/believe
ظهَر يظهَر
to be apparent/manifest
عبَد يعبُد
to worship
عبَر يعبُر
to traverse
عجِب يعجَب
to be amazed
عدّ يعُدّ
to count/enumerate; to consider among
عدَل يعدِل
to be fair
عذَر يعذِر
to excuse/forgive

Exercise: write a short sentence in Arabic on each of the following topics using at least one of the above words in each sentence; this exercise may be skipped by beginners

· the current economic situation
· whether universities should be private or state-run
· how a servant can gain a close relationship with his lord
· the effective of poorly chosen friends

Arabic
English
عرَف يعرِف
to know/recognize
عطِش يعطَش
to be thirsty
عقَد يعقِد
to tie/knot/lock/etc; other meanings
علِق يعلَق
to hang; to be hung; to cling
علِم يعلَم
to know
عمِل يعمَل
to do/work
عاد يعود
to return
عاق يعوق
to hinder
غرّ يغُرّ
to mislead
غضِب يغضَب
to become angry
غفَر يغفِر
to forgive
غلَب يغلِب
to overpower/conquer
غلَق يغلِق
to lock; to close
غاب يغيب
to disappear
فتَح يفتَح
to open
فرّ يفِرّ
to flee
فرَق يفرُق
to separate/divide
فشِل يفشَل
to lose heart; to fail
فصَل يفصِل
to detach
فضَل يفضُل
to be better

Exercise: how can the following meanings be achieved (theoretically at least) by using the above words in advanced verb paradigms?

· to make someone angry
· to be preferable
· to be fragmented
· to introduce someone to someone else
· to commence/open a symposium
· to recognize each other

Arabic
English
فقَد يفقُد
to lose something
فات يفوت
to slip away
فاض يفيض
to overflow
قبَض يقبِض
to seize
قبِل يقبَل
to accept
قتَل يقتُل
to kill
قدَر يقدِر
to possess ability
قدِم يقدَم
to arrive
قرَأ يقرَأ
to read
قسَم يقسِم
to categorize
قصَد يقصِد
to make something a goal/aim/intention
قضى يقضي
to execute/perfume
قطَع يقطَع
to cut
قعَد يقعُد
to sit
قلَب يقلِب
to turn/flip/etc
قال يقول
to say
قام يقوم
to stand
كتَب يكتُب
to write; to ordain
كتَم يكتُم
to hide/conceal
كذَب يكذِب
to lie

Exercise: how can the following meanings be achieved (theoretically at least) by using the above words in advanced verb paradigms?

· to inundate something
· to become disconnected
· to deem someone a liar
· to want to accept someone (be a receptionist)
· to boycott

Arabic
English
كرِه يكرَه
to dislike
كسَر يكسِر
to break
كشَف يكشِف
to remove a covering
كاد يكيد
to deceive/dupe
لبِس يلبَس
to wear
لحِق يلحَق
to catch up; to be joint to
لزِم يلزَم
to be necessary; to adhere to
لعِب يلعَب
to play
مدّ يمُدّ
to extend/be long
مرّ يمُرّ
to pass by
مسّ يمَسّ
to touch
مضى يمضي
for something to pass
مطَر يمطُر
to rain
ملأ يملأ
to fill up
ملَك يملِك
to take/have possession / to own
منَع يمنَع
to prevent
نجَح ينجَح
to end up successful
نزَل ينزِل
to descend
نسِي ينسى
to forget
نشَأ ينشَأ
to grow

Exercise: how can the following derived nouns be formed given the above verbs and meanings?

· filled up
· the past
· playground
· most successful woman
· very long and spread out
· one who uncovers (by profession)
· (theoretically) something used for breaking

Arabic
English
نصَح ينصَح
to advise
نصَر ينصُر
to help
نضِج ينضَج
to become mature
نظَر ينظُر
to look
نفَع ينفَع
to benefit
نقَل ينقُل
to move/relocate (something)
نهى ينهي
to forbid
نام ينوم
to sleep
نوى ينوي
to intend
هدا يهدي
to guide
هلَك يهلِك
to perish; to be annihilated
وجَب يجِب
to be necessary
وجَد يجِد
to find (not to look for)
وصَل يصِل
to arrive; to combine/link; other meanings
وضَع يضَع
to put
وقَع يقَع
to fall; to occur
وقَف يقِف
to stop
ولَد يلِد
to give birth (even for masculine)

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